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Ashwagandha

Ashwagandha is the more common name for the plant Withania Somnifera. This plant is known for it’s medicinal properties and abilities as an herbal remedy. It is the root of this plant that makes up ashwagandha, and provides the body with sleep inducing powers. The most important benefit provided by ashwagandha is it’s ability to regulate and improve sleep duration and quality, which helps to increase energy for athletic performance, improve muscle repair and recovery and enhance cognitive functioning.

Molecular Representation of Ashwagandha

Breakdown of Chemical Compound

Ashwagandha is a plant that belongs to the Solanaceae (or nightshade) family and is commonly used for medicinal purposes. The

Health Benefits of Ashwagandha

The health benefits of Ashwagandha revolves around its ability to aid sleep patterns and enhance the quality of sleep. Many of the health benefits that this plant offers, both physically and mentally, are due to this improvement in sleep.


Chromium

Chromium (III) picolinate is a chemical compound and an essential nutrient. As an ingredient used in athletic dietary supplements, it is absorbed by passive transport through the gut at a rate of 2%. This absorbency rate is plenty since the body does not need much of this compound to provide both physiological and psychological health benefits. Some of the most popular benefits of this ingredient include: a reduction in insulin resistance, lowered “bad” cholesterol, raised “good” cholesterol, increased fat loss and muscle gain, and of course an increase in energy levels resulting in the enhancement of athletic performances.

Molecular Representation of Chromium

Breakdown of Chemical Compound

Chromium (III) picolinate is a chemical compound that is derived from chromium (III) and picolinic acid. Chromium is an essential nutrient when it comes to acquiring and keeping normal blood glucose levels. It has been known to interact with two molecules, which are naturally found within the body. It is believed that these two interactions probably happens through coordination with hard ligands.

This compound is most frequently ingested as an ingredient in athletic dietary supplements or as an individual supplement. Once in the stomach it comes in contact with the stomach mucosa and the acidic hydrolysis occurs. It is through unsaturated passive transport that about 2% of Chromium (III) picolinate is absorbed through the gut. Starch, oxalic acid, simple sugars and a few amino acids included in the diet can increase this absorption rate.

Only small quantities of this compound are needed for insulin to utilize glucose within the human body in order to stabilize normal health. It does this by increasing the insulin receptors sensitivity. By reducing insulin resistance, chromium (III) picolinate is a viable option for helping to reduce the negative effects on the body caused by type 2 diabetes, although there is not enough evidence supporting it as a treatment.

Health Benefits of Ingredients

The benefits that chromium (III) picolinate provide to your health center around reducing insulin resistance and increasing weight loss and athletic performance, which makes this chemical compound primarily beneficial to physiological health. It has been shown to help improve blood sugar control in prediabetics and those with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It also helps people with high blood sugar caused by steroids to better control their blood sugar levels.

Chromium (III) picolinate can lower “bad” cholesterol, raise “good” cholesterol and reduce the risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), metabolic syndrome and heart attacks. It has also been shown to aid in body conditioning. This includes weight loss from fat, muscle mass increases and improved athletic performance due to an increase in energy.

As far as psychological health goes, this chemical compound is used for reducing the severity of depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. It may also help to reduce the risk of developing a psychological binge eating disorder that could result in the development of serious physiological health problems.


Cinnamon Bark Extract

Cinnamon bark extract comes from a variety of aromatic evergreen trees belonging to the cinnamomum genus. These trees can be found in tropical and subtropical environments along the Americas, Asia, Oceania and Australasia. They have been shown to have medicinal properties that enhance the health of the human body both on a physiological level and a psychological level. Some of the health benefits associated with this dietary supplement ingredient include enhanced metabolism, improved digestive system and reduced risk of bacterial infections.

Molecular Representation of Cinnamon Bark Extract

Breakdown of the Cinnamon Bark Extract Compound

Cinnamomum is a genus of trees belonging to the laurel family Lauraceae, which are evergreen and aromatic in nature. There are a 300 different species that fall beneath the Cinnamomum genus and they can be found in the tropical and subtropical regions of Australasia, Oceania, Asia, South America, Central America and North America. These species have aromatic oils in both their bark and their leaves which can be used for medicinal purposes.

Cinnamon bark extract has many different names including (but not limited to), batavia cassia, cannelle de ceylan, ceylon cinnamon, cinnamomum zeylanicum, laurus cinnamomum, panang cinnamon, saigon cassia, thwak and tvak. Each of these names refers to a medicinal extract taken from a tree in the cinnamomum genus that is used for to attain and maintain healthy standards of living.

Health Benefits of Ingredients

With healthy minerals like iron, calcium, fiber and manganese along with vitamin K, cinnamon bark extract is a healthy ingredient that acts as an antioxidant to block the harmful effects of free radicals within the body. When taken on a regular basis this supplement ingredient can improve natural metabolic rates and stimulate weight loss.


Dandelion Root

Dandelion root is an herb that belongs to the Asteraceae family and Taraxacum genus of flowering plants. Both the leaves and the root of this wildflower have medicinal properties which improve the digestive system, detox the blood and work as an antioxidant and diuretic to help treat the negative effects of liver problems and viral infections. Whether it is eaten fresh or taken dry as an ingredient in an athletic dietary supplement the dandelion root is full of healthy minerals such as zinc, potassium and iron as well as vitamins A, B, C, and D.

Molecular Representation of Dandelion Root

Breakdown of Chemical Compound

The dandelion belongs to Taraxacum which is a genus of flowering plants. This genus belongs to the Asteraceae family. Dandelions are native to North America as well as Eurasia, and are edible wildflowers with healthing properties. Dandelions are considered herbs in the medicinal sense and can be ground into powder full of iron, potassium, zinc and vitamins A, B, C, and D. The roots of the dandelion plant can also be ground to provide medicinal benefits to the liver, spleen, kidneys and gallbladder.

While the roots of the dandelion can be roasted and used as a caffeine free dandelion coffee, they are most often used for medicinal purposes. The roots of this wildflower contains various pharmacologically active compounds which have been shown to help treat viral infections and cancer. It is believed that many of these benefits are directly affected by the antioxidant properties found within both the leaves and the roots.

Health Benefits of Ingredients

There are many health benefits related to dandelion root. The most prevalent medicinal use for this plant is as a diuretic. It has been shown to help increase the amount of urine production which in turn helps to reduce the amount of swelling in your body. This benefit can be used to reduce negative effects associated with an unhealthy liver, high blood pressure and water retention.

Whether the leaves or roots of the dandelion plant are fresh or dried this herb has been shown to improve digestion and help relieve stomach pains. Dandelion root has also been shown to work as a mild laxative. In addition to positively affecting the health of the bladder, gallbladder, spleen, kidneys, liver and digestive system it has also been shown to reduce joint pain, muscle soreness and the prevalence for bruising.

When used as an active ingredient in athletic dietary supplements the dandelion root is able to reduce muscle pain associated with high intensity workouts to speed up recovery time. It is also able to detox your digestive system and your blood to ensure that your metabolism is working efficiently and your blood is healthy. By reducing inflammation and increasing urine production, this herbal ingredient is also beneficial for helping pro bodybuilders to be stage ready on the day of competitions.

GABA

GABA, otherwise known as gamma-Aminobutyric acid, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter responsible for both psychological and physiological health benefits within the human body. It works by opening ion channels to promote the inward flow of negatively charged chloride ions into cells and the outward flow of positively charged potassium ions out of cells. These processes have a positive effect on deep sleep patterns that directly affect cognitive functioning and immune response, and an indirect effect on physical strength and repair.

Molecular Representation of GABA

Breakdown of the GABA Compound

GABA is a shortened acronym that stands for the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter otherwise referred to as gamma-Aminobutyric acid which lies primarily within the mammalian central nervous system. The main responsibility of GABA is to reduce the neuronal excitability in the nervous system. It is also responsible for regulating muscle tone in the human body.

As the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA binds specific transmembrane receptors within the plasma membrane of presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal processes. By binding these receptors ion channels open and allow either negatively charged chloride ions to flow into the cell or positively charged potassium ions to flow out of the cell. This process can cause hyperpolarization by negatively changing the transmembrane potential.

There are two known general classes of GABA receptors which exist. These classes include GABAA and GABAB. GABAA refers to the class in which the ligand gated ion channel complex is home to the transmembrane receptor. GABAB refers to G protein coupled receptors which open and close ion channels through intermediaries. This class may also be known as metabotropic receptors.

Health Benefits of Ingredients

The psychological health benefits of GABA, or gamma-Aminobutyric acid, are more prevalent than the physiological health benefits produced indirectly by this chemical made within the brain. When taken as a part of an athletic dietary supplement GABA is capable of relieving anxiety, reducing pain and other symptoms associated with premenstrual syndrome (PMS), enhancing moods and aiding in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

The most important psychological health benefit produced by GABA is improved sleep. In order to maintain a healthy lifestyle you must progress through all five sleep stages more often than not. The first stage is when you are just starting to fall asleep. The second occurs when your brainwave activity increases while your heart rate decreases and your body temperature falls. The third stage is the tradition between light and deep sleep and is characterized by slower brainwaves. Stages four and five are known as deep sleep, and this is when the effects of GABA are most prevalent.

Since deep sleep reduces cortisol levels and inflammation, strengthens the immune system and muscle repair cycle, enhances memory functions and increases the ability to gain and retain focus, the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA is vital for both physiological and psychological health.


L-Glutamine

L-Glutamine is an amino acid which is synthesized naturally in the human body, but is also depleted during period of intense workouts and stress inducing events. This means that in many cases the body needs to consume additional glutamine through a well-balanced diet and dietary supplements which contain this nutrient to maintain adequate levels. It benefits the body both physiologically by enhancing workout and athletic performance as well as psychologically by preventing insomnia, boosting moods and reducing the effects of stress and anxiety.

Molecular view of L-Glutamine

Breakdown of L-Glutamine Compound

L-Glutamine is an amino acid used within the biosynthesis of proteins in the human body. Although glutamine can be synthesized naturally within the body, increased stress levels caused by internal and/or external pressures can increase the body’s demand for glutamine. These increased stress levels can include anything from a hectic work schedule to an intensity increase during your workout routine. When the demand for glutamine is increased, it must be obtained from your diet or through dietary supplements.

Glutamine provides various necessary biochemical functions such as protein synthesis, lipid synthesis, cellular energy, carbon donation and nitrogen donation. It uses glutamate and ammonia to synthesize through the enzyme glutamine synthetase. Since about 90% of all glutamine is synthesized within muscular tissues, it stands to reason that the more muscle mass you have, the more glutamine your body can produce on it’s own. In order to increase your muscle mass you may need to add additional glutamine to your reserves through your diet or dietary supplements.

Health Benefits of L-Glutamine

The health benefits associated with L-Glutamine are most commonly physiological in nature. One of the most important physiological health benefits of glutamine is its ability to enhance exercising and athletic performances. It does this by increasing your metabolism, volumizing your cells, and increasing the body’s ability to secrete and use the human growth hormone (HGH). This hormone alone works to help support new muscle growth while also metabolizing and reducing body fat.

Molecular view of L-Glutamine

Since L-Glutamine contains anti-catabolism properties, it works to prevent the breakdown of your muscles while you are working to shed pounds of fat, without losing any muscle tone, mass or definition. Since glutamine stores in your body deplete during intense and stressful workouts, stocking up on dietary supplements which include this nutrient is vitally important for anyone who participates in regular exercise, especially those who workout on a daily basis or at a professional level.

In addition to enhancing athletic and exercise performance, glutamine is also used by the body to improve the digestive system and reduce the risk of ulcers and Crohn’s disease. Psychological benefits including boosted moods, reduced risk of depression, reduced anxiety and insomnia prevention are also among the more important health benefits provided by glutamine.


L-Tryptophan

L-Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, which means that the human body is incapable of synthesizing it. Despite not being able to produce this nutrient, it is required as a precursor to the neurotransmitters melatonin and serotonin, which means that it must be consumed through a well-balanced diet or daily dietary supplements. The most important health benefits of tryptophan are psychological in nature. They include the fact that it aids in the regulation of sleep patterns, the enhancement of moods and the improvement of social behavior. These direct psychological improvements help to indirectly improve your physiological health as well.

L-Tryptophan

L-Tryptophan is an essential amino acid necessary for the biosynthesis of proteins. The human body is not naturally able to synthesize this amino acid, which means that in order to obtain this nutrient, it must be plentiful in the diet or included in a daily dietary supplement. As a precursor to neurotransmitters melatonin and serotonin, Tryptophan is an important nutrient included in natural sleep aids.

Although human bodies do not synthesize this nutrient, many plants and microorganisms are able to synthesize it from anthranilate and shikimic. In order for these microorganisms and plants to synthesize this nutrient, anthranilate must condense with phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP). This generates pyrophosphate. The ribose moiety ring is then opened and decarboxylated to produce indole-3-glycerophosphate, which becomes indole. Finally tryptophan synthase catalyzes tryptophan from the amino acid serine and indole.

Biosynthesis of tryptophan is often used in the creation of dietary supplements, and takes place when serine and indole have been fermented with a wild-type, or genetically modified bacteria (such as B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, C. glutamicum and/or E. coli. The conversions of these strains are catalyzed by the enzyme tryptophan synthase. Once this nutrient has been synthesized, it can be consumed by humans through diet or supplements to provide the body with its beneficial effects.

Health Benefits of L-Tryptophan

The most prevalent health benefit produced by tryptophan is purely psychological. As a precursor to the neurotransmitters serotonin and melatonin, both known for their effects on sleep patterns, tryptophan is essential to a healthy circadian cycle. Without this nutrient the human body would have difficulties properly regulating moods, social behavior, sleep patterns, memory and even the appetite.

Whether this ingredient is synthesized naturally or undergoes biosynthesis for creation, it is used to help aid in the treatment of sleep apnea and insomnia, depression and anxiety, pain caused by the premenstrual syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It can also be used to improve athletic performance, as the more well rested your body is, the better equipped it is to heal and repair itself. This process ensures that muscles are able to grow stronger and athletic performance is able to increase exponentially.

Magnesium Oxide

Magnesium Oxide is an ionic bonded white hygroscopic solid mineral which occurs naturally as a form of magnesium. Not only is this athletic dietary supplement ingredient necessary for normal bodily functioning related to the muscular and skeletal systems, but it also has medicinal purposes and is used to aid in the relief of heartburn, indigestion and other stomach related issues.

Magnesium Oxide

Breakdown of the Magnesium Oxide Compound

Magnesium Oxide is a white hygroscopic solid mineral held together by ionic bonding. It is also referred to as magnesia, and it occurs naturally as a source of magnesium. The production of this athletic dietary supplement ingredient occurs when the calcination of magnesium hydroxide or magnesium carbonate is followed by heat. When magnesium oxide is calcined at different temperatures, different reactivity occurs.

This element is necessary for normal functioning within the body and may be used for many different medicinal purposes. Magnesium Oxide can be taken as an individual supplement in the form of a tablet or capsule by mouth, or it can be added to an athletic dietary supplement to provide both psychological and physiological health benefits.

Health Benefits of Ingredients

Magnesium Oxide has medicinal properties that benefit both physiological and cognitive health. It has the ability to relief pain caused by heartburn and as an antacid to calm a sour stomach. It can also be used as a short-term laxative, or to reduce symptoms of indigestion.

This mineral is vitally important to maintaining the health and normal functioning of muscles, bones, nerves, cells and the heart. Although it is possible to obtain adequate levels of magnesium oxide through a well-balanced diet, occasionally the body loses magnesium at a faster rate than it can be replaced by diet alone, which is part of the reason that it is such an important ingredient for dietary supplements.

Having low levels of magnesium in the blood can cause negative health concerns related to the muscular and skeletal systems. When levels fall too much, vascular migraines can become a problem. Magnesium Oxide works to treat and prevent these low levels to help maintain your general health so that you have enough energy and stamina to increase your health and fitness levels through daily exercise.


Melatonin

Melatonin is a hormone that is naturally occurring in the human body. Its main purpose is to control the body’s sleep patterns and timing by focusing its attention on synchronizing your natural circadian rhythm. Although melatonin does naturally occur within the human body, it can also be consumed through supplements to raise natural levels and improve sleep without causing the adverse effects of chemical sleep aids. By improving the quality of your sleep this athletic dietary supplement ingredient is able to directly improve your psychological health and indirectly improve your physiological health.

Melatonin

Melatonin is a hormone which is found naturally in the human body. It anticipates the onset of darkness on a daily basis and is thus involved in the natural process of synchronizing circadian rhythms. When it comes to naturally controlling sleep timing and patterns, melatonin takes the reigns. These effects are produced by the activation of melatonin receptors and the fact that it is a powerful antioxidant.

The hydroxylation, decarboxylation, acetylation and methylation of L-tryptophan are responsible for the biosynthesis of melatonin. The process begins when L-tryptophan is produced from chorismate in the shikimate pathway or acquired from the catabolism of protein. It is then hydroxylated and decarboxylated to produce serotonin. The serotonin then acts as a neurotransmitter and is also converted into N-acetyl-serotonin. This compound then goes through the process of methylation of the hydroxyl group to become melatonin. Of course this chemical can also be consumed as an ingredient within an athletic dietary supplement to increase its presence in the body.

Health Benefits of Melatonin

The direct health benefits acquired from adequate melatonin levels are all psychological and neurological, but this hormone also indirectly benefits a person's physiological health. The most important psychological benefit of melatonin is that it aids in regulating circadian rhythms to improve sleep patterns as well as the overall quality of sleep that you are achieving. Indirectly this produces the physiological health benefits that can be associated with his hormone.

There are many aspects of your psychological health that are improved by obtaining adequate sleep. Some of these areas include: enhanced memory recall, increased mental creativity and general functioning, sharpened attention span and lowered stress levels. All of these mental benefits combine to create a higher quality of life, so that you have the energy and stamina to workout and put the necessary effort into improving your health and fitness on a physiological level.

The physiological health benefits that result from an increased quality of sleep include: reduced inflammation, improved cardiovascular health, regulated blood pressure and heart rate, strengthened immune system, healthier weight and enhanced athletic performance. Without adequate sleep all of these areas of health could be at risk for functioning under par.


Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine HCl)

Pyridoxine is a form of vitamin B6 which is absorbed in the jejunum and ileum through passive diffusion and used within the body as a coenzyme in a multitude of enzymatic reactions that occur as a part of the metabolic process. Other health benefits of this athletic dietary supplement ingredient include pain reduction and cognitive functioning improvement. It can also calm the central nervous system when combined with other B vitamins.

Vitamin B6

Breakdown of the Vitamin B6 Compound

Vitamin B6 belongs to a group which contains similar compounds that have the ability to be interconverted within biological systems. There are several forms of vitamin B6 including: pyridoxine (PN), pyridoxine 5’-phosphate (PNP), pyridoxal (PL), pyridoxal 5’ phosphate (PLP), pyridoxamine (PM), pyridoxamine 5’-phosphate (PMP), 4-pyridoxic acid (PA) and pyritinol. All of these forms, with the exception of pyridoxic acid and pyritinol have the ability to be interconverted.

Vitamin B6 can be obtained naturally through the consumption of many different types of food. Pyridoxine is specifically most commonly found in plants and tends to lose the least amount of their vitamin B6 content during processing. It is also the most common form of vitamin B6 used in athletic dietary supplements due to the fact that it is far more stable than the pyridoxamine or pyridoxal found in animal foods.

All forms of vitamin B6 are absorbed in the jejunum and ileum through the process of passive diffusion. Since the human capacity for absorption is so high, we are able to absorb more than is necessary for physiological benefits to take effect, which means that you do not need to consume large amounts of this nutrient in order for it to provide you with health benefits.

Health Benefits of Vitamin B6

The vitamin B group provides a plethora of health benefits that range from aiding in the metabolic process, acting as coenzymes in a variety of enzymatic reactions and working as a precursor to other coenzymes to making, repairing and methylating DNA to help rapid cell division and growth necessary in the early stages of life. Pyridoxine is a specific B vitamin used by the human body as a coenzyme for many different enzymatic reactions that take place during the metabolic process.

Among the beneficial chemical reactions provided by this specific B vitamin it is also used to help relieve nerve and muscle pain. Often times it is used by diabetics to control their pain, but athletes also use this ingredient to help reduce the pain associated with muscle repair following intense workouts. Pyridoxine can also be used to reduce high levels of cholesterol and limit the risk that a person may develop a heart condition.

From a psychological perspective, this ingredient can also be used to help users focus more, increase their memory capabilities and improve their cognitive functioning. It also works to enhance moods, which can reduce the likelihood of depression. When used in combination with other B vitamins, the health benefits of Pyridoxine also include a calming effect to the nervous system that can improve quality of sleep.


White Kidney Bean Extract

White kidney bean extracts provides all of the dietary benefits of eating white kidney beans on a daily basis, without having to actually incorporate these beans into your everyday diet. When added to an athletic dietary supplement, this ingredient works to inhibit the body’s natural digestion process of starches. This creates a carbohydrate blocker that aids in increased weight loss and improved weight management.

Breakdown of the White Kidney Bean Extract Compound

White kidney bean extract inhibits the digestion of starches to create a carbohydrate blocker so that these calories are not absorbed by the body, but rather excreted or given to colonic bacteria for substance. This is done by inhibiting the effectiveness of the starch-digesting enzyme, amylase, which normally converts the starch (carbohydrates) that you consume into absorbable sugar and is then stored within your body as fat.

Low glycemic index diets focus on consuming foods which are already low in carbohydrates and sugars to better control conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. When white kidney bean extract is added to these diets its effects are even more beneficial to those with these conditions, because it reduces the amount of the glycogen the body has to contend with. For those who are not suffering from these health conditions, it is a useful ingredient to aid in weight loss, weight management and the maintenance of general health.

Health Benefits of Ingredients

The major health benefit provided by white kidney bean extract in athletic dietary supplements is physiological in nature and revolves around its ability to fight weight gain, while simultaneously promoting weight loss. This health benefit aids in those trying to maintain a generally healthy lifestyle, diabetics, those with cardiovascular diseases and people suffering from metabolic syndrome.

When taken as a part of an athletic dietary supplement and a balanced diet, this ingredient can reduce the amount of body fat (and thus reduce body weight) by restricting the amount of carbohydrates that your body is able to digest, convert to sugar and store as fat. This is due to the fact that unless carbohydrates are broken down into small enough units the body will not be able to make use of the calories that they provide.


Bioperine

Bioperine is a trademarked and standardized piperine composition. It is extracted from long and black pepper and acts as a thermogenic nutrient when ingested. This process works to enhance the metabolic process. Athletic dietary supplements containing this extract improve metabolism rates to increase weight loss, while also ensuring that the body attains the proper nutrients through natural absorption.

Molecular Representation of the Compound Bioperine

Breakdown of the Compound Bioperine

Bioperine makes up a standardized piperine composition of black pepper and long pepper extract. It is a trademarked extract from Sabinsa and is also known as piperine. The extraction process is performed using dichloromethane. Piperine is the part of black and long pepper that is responsible for its pungency. This pungency is caused by activating nociceptors of the heat and the acidity sensing TRPV ion channels TRPV1 and TRPA1.

The most powerful component of this ingredient is the fact that it is a thermo nutrient. This means that it has the capabilities to improve amount of nutrients that your body absorbs by enhancing thermogenesis in the body. Research shows that Bioperine (piperine) stimulates the release of catecholamines (thermogenic hormones) so that they can enhance the metabolic process of the body through its work with the autonomous nervous system (the gastrointestinal tract and the alpha and beta adrenergic receptors).

Health Benefits of Bioperine

When taken on a regular basis, as part of a balanced diet and exercise routine, Bioperine provides the body with significant physiological health benefits. For example this black pepper extract works at the chemical and molecular level in your body to increase metabolism rates, enhance fat burning abilities and improve weight loss, so that you can more easily achieve your physique goals.

One of the most important health benefits this ingredient provides to users is the positive effect that it plays on nutritional absorption. It is called “bioenhancement” and research shows that this effect increases the body’s ability to absorb vitamin A, vitamin B6, Vitamin C, beta-carotene, coenzyme Q and selenium. Those who suffer from malabsorption and in turn malnutrition will benefit the most from this ingredient as it should help to balance the absorption rates within the body and decrease the negative effects associated with malnutrition.