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Beta Alanine

Beta Alanine is a non-essential amino acid, which is naturally occurring and falls within the beta amino group. It can be made by the human body as well as found in athletic dietary supplements. When additional beta alanine is introduced to the body through supplementation it provides physiological benefits such as increased muscle growth, delayed muscle fatigue and enhanced athletic performances.

Molecular Representation of Beta Alanine

Breakdown of Chemical Compound

Beta Alanine is a naturally occurring beta amino acid which means that it is a part of the amino group that is at the beta-position from the carboxylate group. It is a non-essential amino acid, which means that the body is capable of making it. Taking dietary supplements which contain beta alanine increases the natural stock and directly improves muscular performance.

Beta alanine is formed in vivo when dihydrouracil and carnosine are degraded. It is the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, which means that the level of carnosine in the body is directly limited by the amount of beta alanine available. Supplementation of beta alanine results in greater amounts of both beta alanine and carnosine within the muscles. Carnosine contains histidine and beta alanine within it, but when taken as a supplement breaks down in the digestive process to provide the body with only about 40% of beta alanine. This means that taking beta alanine as a direct supplement provides the body with a much larger dose.

Beta alanine dipeptides are not incorporated into proteins due to their position in the beta amino group, which means that they can be stored at higher concentrations. It also registers as an efficient intramuscular buffer.

Health Benefits of Ingredient

The health benefits of beta alanine are primarily physiological. When taken in an athletic dietary supplement beta alanine has the distinct ability to improve some measures of physical performance during strength training and periods of high-intensity exercise by delaying muscle fatigue.

Since levels of carnosine within muscles are raised while taking beta alanine supplements, you are capable of maintaining a higher workout volume. This chemical reaction happening within your body creates a toned and sculpted result to your physique. Significant physical benefits and rewards include: increased muscle mass and strength, delayed and reduced muscle fatigue and enhanced performance during both cardio training and strength training.


Caffeine Anhydrous

Caffeine Anhydrous is created by dehydrating caffeine to make a crystalline powder, which is then standardized and regulated throughout athletic dietary supplements to provide a more controlled and greater boost in energy levels. The strength of this powdered form of caffeine does not vary due to different water content as other forms of caffeine are, and thus is a more effective stimulant. It will increase the energy levels of those who take this supplement to indirectly affect their health and fitness levels.

Molecular Representation of Caffeine Anhydrous

Breakdown of Compound

Caffeine belongs in the methylxanthine class of stimulants. It positively affects the central nervous system to provide the body with energy and prevent the onset of drowsiness that is caused by adenosine. It does this by reversibly blocking the action of adenosine on its chemical receptors. Caffeine also has the ability to stimulate certain areas of your autonomic nervous system.

When chemical substances contain no water they are often referred to as anhydrous. The presence of water can impose on the reaction process of certain chemicals, such as caffeine, which may reduce effectiveness. In short this means that Caffeine Anhydrous is believed to be a more effective form of this stimulant ingredient, based on its chemical composition.

While Caffeine Anhydrous and Caffeine are chemically the same, except for their water content, their potency is not. Because of this, the dosage of caffeine anhydrous is standard but that of other caffeinated substances (such as brewed drinks) can vary in their caffeine content based on how much water exists in the substance/drink.

Health Benefits of Ingredients

When taken in proper doses and combined with a regular exercise routine, Caffeine Anhydrous benefits your mental and physical health. This works by providing your body with the energy that it needs to perform high intensity workouts, for longer periods of time, thus producing better results.

Since caffeine anhydrous is a concentrated and standardized form of caffeine, it has been shown to provide higher energy yields than other forms of caffeine, such as soda, coffee and chocolate. This result is especially important during max endurance and high intensity training sessions, as this is the time when your body is pushed to its limits, and energy reserves are more easily depleted.

For longer and more productive workouts, athletic dietary supplements containing caffeine anhydrous should be taken on a regular basis. The energy it will provide you with, will help you to achieve greater physical gains through more intense workout sessions. You will be better equipped to grow lean muscle mass and increase your total fat loss.


Hordenine HCL

Hordenine HCL is an alkaloid that is naturally occuring from the phenethylamine class. As a stimulant of the central nervous system it works to increase blood flow and metabolic rates. This improves weight loss results, increases energy levels and enhances cognitive functioning. Research shows that when this ingredient is combined with Beta PEA and Caffeine in dietary supplements it can be more productive and produce better results.

Molecular Representation of the Compound Hordenine HCL

Breakdown of the Compound Hordenine

Hordenine HCL occurs naturally in plants as an alkaloid from the phenethylamine class. The chemical composition of Hordenine is the N-methyl derivative of N-methyltyramine. It can be biosynthesized to create the N, N-dimethyl derivative of biogenic amine tyramine.

There is significant research that supports the theory that Hordenine HCL is a stimulant that increases blood flow to produce a stronger cardiovascular system and may even help to increase metabolic rates. The stimulating effects of this ingredient can increase energy and promote weight loss goals. It’s important to know that while Hordenine can be taken intravenously, it is most commonly taken orally by humans, as a dietary supplement.

It is a natural MAO inhibitor and therefore should not be combined with any other MAOIs. Since high MAO levels can result in an imbalance of hormones causing mood and energy drops and even lead to disorders like Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). Hordenine HCL and other MAOIs can prevent these imbalances from happening, while simultaneously increasing cognitive abilities.

Health Benefits of Hordenine HCL

Hordenine HCL has both physical and mental benefits that anyone can benefit from, regardless of their lifestyle habits. These benefits range from increasing curbing appetite and increasing energy levels to enhancing moods and sharpening mental focus.

As far as physical health benefits go, the most important of Hordenine is its ability to stimulate natural energy throughout the entire body while also increasing your natural metabolism. When paired with caffeine in dietary supplements these effects are only heightened. Since it curbs appetite and increases metabolic rates it should enhance your body’s ability to burn off fat and thus make it a superb tool for weight loss.

Mental health benefits of Hordenine bump this supplement ingredient up a notch or two on the chain of dietary importance. It is capable of supercharging your memory and your mental focus without producing the anxious jitters that are so often associated with coffee, and other concentrated forms of caffeine. This gives you a healthy and natural way to increase your alertness and response time to outside stimuli.


Hordenine HCL

Hordenine HCL is an alkaloid that is naturally occuring from the phenethylamine class. As a stimulant of the central nervous system it works to increase blood flow and metabolic rates. This improves weight loss results, increases energy levels and enhances cognitive functioning. Research shows that when this ingredient is combined with Beta PEA and Caffeine in dietary supplements it can be more productive and produce better results.

Molecular Representation of the Compound Hordenine HCL

Breakdown of the Compound Hordenine

Hordenine HCL occurs naturally in plants as an alkaloid from the phenethylamine class. The chemical composition of Hordenine is the N-methyl derivative of N-methyltyramine. It can be biosynthesized to create the N, N-dimethyl derivative of biogenic amine tyramine.

There is significant research that supports the theory that Hordenine HCL is a stimulant that increases blood flow to produce a stronger cardiovascular system and may even help to increase metabolic rates. The stimulating effects of this ingredient can increase energy and promote weight loss goals. It’s important to know that while Hordenine can be taken intravenously, it is most commonly taken orally by humans, as a dietary supplement.

It is a natural MAO inhibitor and therefore should not be combined with any other MAOIs. Since high MAO levels can result in an imbalance of hormones causing mood and energy drops and even lead to disorders like Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD). Hordenine HCL and other MAOIs can prevent these imbalances from happening, while simultaneously increasing cognitive abilities.

Health Benefits of Hordenine HCL

Hordenine HCL has both physical and mental benefits that anyone can benefit from, regardless of their lifestyle habits. These benefits range from increasing curbing appetite and increasing energy levels to enhancing moods and sharpening mental focus.

As far as physical health benefits go, the most important of Hordenine is its ability to stimulate natural energy throughout the entire body while also increasing your natural metabolism. When paired with caffeine in dietary supplements these effects are only heightened. Since it curbs appetite and increases metabolic rates it should enhance your body’s ability to burn off fat and thus make it a superb tool for weight loss.

Mental health benefits of Hordenine bump this supplement ingredient up a notch or two on the chain of dietary importance. It is capable of supercharging your memory and your mental focus without producing the anxious jitters that are so often associated with coffee, and other concentrated forms of caffeine. This gives you a healthy and natural way to increase your alertness and response time to outside stimuli.


Yohimbe Bark Extract 8%

Yohimbe bark extract is an active ingredient in supplements which aim to increase athletic performances and improve weakened sex drives. It comes from the an African native tree called the Yohimbe, and contains yohimbine. This ingredient has been used for medicinal purposes for many years in Africa. Yohimbine hydrochloride is a form of this ingredient that is currently used in the United States.

Molecular Representation of Yohimbe Bark Extract Compound

Breakdown of Yohimbe Bark Extract Compound

The bark of the Yohimbe tree must go through the extraction process to become a usable ingredient for supplements. These supplements are taken orally to provide the best results to the user, and are used for athletic enhancement and increased sexual sensitivity and stamina. When taken orally Yohimbe bark extract is easily recognized, digested and metabolized by the human body.

Yohimbine HCL is a form of yohimbine which is an ingredient found in the bark extract of the Yohimbe tree, but can only be used in prescription drugs in the United States and not found in dietary supplements sold in America. These two ingredients are chemically and reactively different and should not be confused with one another. The potency of each of these ingredients is also different, which is a contributing factor to how they are used in prescriptions and supplements.

Health Benefits of Yohimbe Bark Extract

The health benefits of Yohimbe bark extract are primarily physiological. They include athletic performance enhancement through increased energy levels, improved moods and increased blood flow. It is also capable of decreasing fat accumulation, which leads to more weight loss. When all of these factors are combined within a diabetics body, the bark extract of the Yohimbe tree can also reduce nerve pain and high blood pressure.

Both the Yohimbe bark extract supplement and prescription drugs containing Yohimbine HCL can be used to help reduce the negative effects of erectile dysfunction (ED) in males, as well as raise lowered sex drives in women. It may also have a reversal effect on certain negative sexual side effects which are associated with many antidepressant medications.

Yohimbe bark extract is capable of increasing natural blood flow throughout the body and increasing general and exerted energy levels. These are the two main reasons why this ingredient is a popular additive to dietary supplements. It is because of these enhancements that Yohimbe bark extract is believed to boost athletic performances and sex drives. They are able to intensify workouts and improve your sexual stamina.


Vitamin B12 (Methylcobalamin)

Vitamin B12, or methylcobalamin, is one of eight B vitamins. Its primary functions focus on keeping the brain and nervous system working properly as well as maintaining the formation of red blood cells. It is also involved in the metabolism of every cell in your body, and provides a plethora of both physical and cognitive health benefits including strengthened bones and tendons, increased energy levels, improved immune systems and increased mental focus.

Molecular Representation of Vitamin B12

Breakdown of the Compound Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is also referred to as methylcobalamin and it is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a vital role in maintaining normal functioning of the brain, nervous system and the formation of red blood cells. Humans, plants and fungi are unable to produce this vitamin because bacteria and archaea are the only organism types that produce the enzymes that are necessary for its synthesis. Still we attain this vitamin naturally through animal food sources such as meats, fish and dairy products.

The Vitamin B12 that is bound to protein in food sources is released when hydrochloric acid and gastric protease become active in the stomach. The Vitamin B12 that is found in supplements does not require this step because it is already in its free form. Once it reaches its free form it combines with a glycoprotein which is secreted by the stomach and undergoes absorption within the distal ileum.

Once absorbed, Vitamin B12 plays a part in the metabolism of each and every cell within the human body. It affects DNA synthesis as well as the process of amino acid and fatty acid metabolism. Due to its crucial role in biological chemistry synthetic B12 is created industrially through a bacterial fermentation-synthesis and used both to fortify food products and as an ingredient within dietary supplements.

Health Benefits of Ingredient

The health benefits of Vitamin B12 are plentiful and varied. They include both physiological and psychological benefits that range from strengthening bones, easing swollen tendons and promoting increased energy levels to improving memory recall, increasing mental focus and concentration and helping to enhance and improve moods.

A deficiency in B12 can leave you feeling tired and unfocused causing you to overeat and skip workouts, which is why the addition of this vitamin is so important in athletic dietary supplements. Keeping an adequate amount of B12 stored within your body not only increases the likelihood that you make it to your workouts, it also improves your performance during your workouts.

There are eight B vitamins, but B12 is arguably one of the most important for active individuals. This is because it improves your immune system, reducing the risk of illness or infection that may lead to a lapse of your healthy routine. But above and beyond that it even reduces the negative effects those with asthma may experience during periods of increased exercise intensity.


Theobromine

Theobromine is an alkaloid that is naturally found within the cacao plant, and present in chocolate and a variety of other foods. It is a stimulant that provides a lesser, but similar, effect to your central nervous system as caffeine. It is also a diuretic that can help improve results during the cutting phase of bodybuilding and a vasodilator which can lower blood pressure during intense workouts.

Molecular Representation of Theobromine

Breakdown of the Compound Theobromine

As you may know, chocolate has many healthy properties associated with it. One of the major benefits of chocolate can be found in the ingredient Theobromine. Theobromine is an alkaloid that comes from the cacao plant and is found in a variety of foods, the most notable one however is chocolate. It is categorized as a dimethyl xanthine and is an isomer of theophylline and paraxanthine. Theobromine has a similar effect of the human nervous system as caffeine, although its effects are generally lesser. In its purest form it is a crystalline bitter powder that is slightly water soluble.

It is a competitive nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor which raises intracellular cAMP, inhibits TNF-alpha and leukotriene synthesis, activates PKA, reduces inflammation and limits innate immunity. Theobromine becomes a stimulant through the process of inhibiting phosphodiesterase. In addition to being a stimulant it is also a vasodilator. A vasodilator works to dilate (or enlarge the circumference of) veins. Combining this effect with the stimulating effect you are met with the illusion of a lowered blood pressure, which can be beneficial to diabetics, weightlifters and workout aficionados.

Health Benefits of Theobromine

The health benefits of Theobromine are specifically useful for athletes, bodybuilders and those who are physically active on a regular basis, as they are primarily physical benefits. When used correctly and appropriately, the benefits of Theobromine will both directly and indirectly aid in the improvement of physical physique.

Theobromine has the ability to give users a boost of energy thanks to its stimulating properties. It is also capable of helping the bronchial muscles within the lungs to relax in order to supply a greater amount of oxygen in each breath taken. When these two abilities are combined they create a beneficial outcome to those working out. These individuals are then able to exercise for longer periods of time at greater intensity levels, without muscle fatigue due to lack of oxygen.

This dietary supplement ingredient is also a vasodilator, which means that it dilates (or expands the circumference) of veins to allow an increased blood flow during workouts. The result of more blood flow to your heart during exercise is a cardiovascular system that is better equipped to handle more intense workouts. This process may also helps to reduce muscle fatigue and decrease the amount of time it takes your muscles to recover after a grueling workout.


Taurine

Taurine is an organic compound found in animal and human tissues. It is naturally found in meat and fish, but can also be taken as a supplement to increase its natural health benefits. Some of the many physiological benefits associated with taurine include: adipose tissue regulation, increased skeletal and cardiac muscular capacity and reduction of blood cholesterol levels.

Molecular Representation of Taurine

Breakdown of the Taurine Compound

Taurine is an organic compound that can be found in animal tissues and plays many fundamental biological roles. Although it is a sulfonic acid that contains an amino group, taurine is not an amino acid which means that it does not contain the more weakly acidic carboxyl group.

Taurine is naturally found within meat and fish. The average amount of taurine consumed in an omnivorous diet is about 58 mg per day, while strict vegan diets contain almost none of this organic compound. When eating a vegan diet, it is especially important to supplement this compound elsewhere in your diet, to ensure the consumption of proper nutrients.

Taurine is derived from cysteine and is synthesized in the pancreas within the cysteine sulfinic acid pathway. Here it is oxidized to cysteine sulfinic acid then decarboxylated to form hypotaurine. It is required for the proper functioning of the cardiovascular system as well as the central nervous system. It also aids in the development and function of the retina and skeletal muscle tissues.

Health Benefits of Taurine

The wide range of physiological health benefits of taurine are far more pronounced than the psychological benefits. Although much of the reactions this ingredient produces occur within the brain or at a chemical level, the results produced are certainly more physical than mental. Some of the physiological benefits include: adipose tissue regulation (which may lead to the prevention of obesity), calcium homeostasis, protection against glutamate excitotoxicity, long-term potentiation in the hippocampus and of course membrane stabilization.

One of the reasons taurine is such a popular addition to athletic dietary supplements is because of its ability to improve the effectiveness, and increase the force, of the heart-muscle contractions. The more efficient the heart works, the greater your workout can become, and thus the more gains and physical enhancements you will begin to see. Taking a daily supplement that contains this ingredient can also lower your blood-cholesterol levels and help to decrease your body fat.

Most importantly though taurine is a necessary component of normal skeletal muscle functioning. It can improve the blood flow of nerves to increase motor nerve conduction velocity. Without the inclusion of taurine in your diet there is an increased risk of reduced exercise capacity due to the deficiency within your skeletal and cardiac muscles.


L-Theanine

L-Theanine is an amino acid analogue and shares a chemical structure similar to that of glutamate. While it is not found naturally within the human body, it can be easily metabolized and processed thanks to its similarities with glutamate. In order for your body to receive the health benefits of this amino acid, it must be consumed through diet or supplements. The cognitive improvements and calming effects of this ingredient are processed quickly due to the fact that it is able to cross the blood-brain barrier.

Molecular Representation of the Compound L-Theanine

Breakdown of the Compound L-Theanine

L-Theanine is an amino acid analogue. It is a part of the proteinogenic amino acid group which also includes L-glutamate and L-glutamine. It is not naturally made by the human body and must therefore be digested through food or dietary supplements for us to extract it’s benefits. Once ingested it is absorbed within the small intestine while the hydrolysis to L-glutamate and ethylamine occur within the intestine and liver.

This ingredient is able to cross the blood-brain barrier with ease. Once across the barrier it remains intact (rather than broken down) and is thus capable of producing a direct pharmacological effect on users. This means that L-Theanine will work more effectively than other chemical processes may. It’s important to note that this blood-brain barrier crosser is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration thanks to the psychological and physiological health effects it can have on your body.

Theanine and glutamate share similar chemical structures which helps the body to recognize and process Theanine. This is due to the fact that glutamate is an amino acid that occurs naturally in the human body, so we are already equipped with the necessary information about how to process this chemical structure. The similarities may create a blockage against glutamate when theanine is introduced to the body.

Health Benefits of L-Theanine

There are both psychological and physiological health benefits associated with L-Theanine. The psychological benefits are more pronounced as it focuses primarily on cognitive abilities and neurological functioning, but it does also reduce high blood pressure and improve metabolism, which are vital physiological health benefits.

When taking any product with stimulants in them, it’s important to make sure they also contain something to helps your mind relax so that your mental focus will remain intact without risking sedation of the body. This helps to reduce the jittery edge that is commonly found in users of stimulating products, and provide a more stable mental state before, during and after workouts.

These calming effects also benefit physiological health, more specifically within the cardiovascular system. While athletic dietary energy inducing supplements often increase your blood pressure and heart rate, those with L-Theanine will be able to reduce this effect. Your heart rate and blood pressure will thus be able to rise only to the necessary level, rather than rising to unsafe or ineffective numbers.


Infinergy (Dicaffeine Malate)

Dicaffeine Malate is an ionic bounded combination of caffeine and malic acid. The trademarked name for Dicaffeine Malate is Infinergy, and when it is combined with an athletic dietary supplement it has the ability to enhance energy levels, personal stamina, cognitive functioning and mental focus.

Molecular Representation of the Compound Dicaffeine Malate

Breakdown of the Infinergy Compound

Infinergy is trademarked by Creative Compounds LLC and is an ionic bonded combination of caffeine and malic acid, also referred to as dicaffeine malate. This unique chemical combination has the capabilities of stimulating thermogenesis while also promoting mental focus. When you break down the ingredients of Infinergy you are left with caffeine and malate, or malic acid, so to fully understand this chemical compound, you need to understand these two ingredients separately.

Caffeine is a stimulant that effects to central nervous system by reversibly blocking the action of adenosine on its receptor. This helps to prevent the onset of drowsiness caused by adenosine. It is also used to stimulate parts of the autonomic nervous system, which can increase energy levels.

Malate, or Malic Acid, is an organic compound and a dicarboxylic acid. It is made by all living organisms and contributes to the sour tastes of some fruits. It has two stereoisomeric forms. The L-isomer exists naturally while the D-isomer is produced synthetically. It has a significant role in biochemistry as it accompanies potassium cations when they are taken into guard cells to maintain electrical balance within the cell. This allows water to enter the cell and promotes aperture or the stomata.

Health Benefits of Infinergy

The health benefits of Infinergy, also known as Dicaffeine Malate, include both physiological and psychological gains. These benefits range from increased energy and stamina levels to enhanced cognitive functioning and mental focus.

Infinergy provides your body with physiological benefits that further enhance other physiological benefits. For instance, when taken as a part of an athletic dietary supplement, Infinergy increases your energy as well as your stamina levels, which in turn helps to increase the amount of time you can spend working out. It also helps when you are looking to increase your intensity levels or weight limits during your exercise routine. With improved stamina and energy levels you can expect to see an improved physique as well.

The psychological benefits of Infinergy may also work to enhance your physical gains. As your cognitive functioning improves you may find that you are able to multitask more efficiently, meaning that you will have more time to spend on personal activities such as a daily workout. By improving your memory you will also be less likely to repeat unnecessary workouts, or skip important routines simply because you can’t remember what day you’re on, or which workouts you haven’t done yet.


Beta PEA

Beta PEA is also known as beta phenylethylamine. It is an organic compound made in the human body and enhanced through a balanced diet and dietary supplements. When you take this supplement on a regular basis, in significant doses it can provide both cognitive and physical health benefits. These benefits include (but are not limited to): increased energy, enhanced moods, improved attention span and more weight loss.

Molecular Representation of Beta PEA

Breakdown of Chemical Compound

Beta Phenylethylamine is more commonly referred to as Beta PEA and is an organic compound. It is a natural monoamine alkaloid as well as a trace amine. It belongs to a class of chemicals known for producing stimulant and psychoactive effects to the mind and body.

Beta PEA is able to function within the central nervous system of the human body as a monoaminergic neuromodulator and a neurotransmitter. It can be found naturally in the body of most animals, but it is also available in food items. It can also be consumed through supplements in order to provide therapeutic health benefits. The metabolism of Beta PEA happens within the small intestine and is converted into phenylacetic acid when it is taken orally as a dietary supplement. This process takes place due to the reactions between monoamine oxidase B and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH).

Health Benefits of Beta PEA

Beta PEA provides mostly psychological health benefits, although there are a few physiological health benefits worth mentioning as well. When it comes to the psychological benefits this nutrient provides, some of the most important ones for athletic users is it’s ability to boost concentration and reduce stress. It can also reduce the duration and intensity of depression and anxiety while increasing cognitive functioning, focus and memory. These psychological benefits help to promote a healthier mind and body.

The physical health benefits of Beta PEA revolve around improving athletic performance through increased weight loss and enhanced energy production. When taken as part of an athletic dietary supplement this nutrient has been shown to work as a natural pain blocker, which allows you to workout for longer periods of time at higher intensity levels before requiring rest. As a weight loss supplement this nutrient additive elevates blood pressure and possibly aid in appetite control. It could also heighten metabolic rates and thus increase the possible rate of fat burning.


Vitamin C

Vitamin C is a necessary nutrient that is naturally found in a variety of foods. It can also be taken in its most natural form as a supplement to ensure adequate intake based on absorption rates. It is used within the human body as a cofactor in eight enzymatic reactions and contains both antioxidant and anti histamine properties.

Molecular view of Vitamin C

Breakdown Of Vitamin C

IUPAC Name: (5 R)-[(1 S)-1,2-Dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy furan-2(5 H)-one

Vitamin C is otherwise known as L-ascorbic acid. The chemical breakdown of ascorbic acid is as follows.

Ascorbic acid is an organic compound that occurs in the natural world, which means it does not need to be made or formulated by man to exist. In its truest form it contains antioxidant properties which have significant health benefits. Ascorbic acid was given it’s name based on the scientific finding that a deficiency of this nutrient can lead to scurvy. The term ascorbic can be broken apart to literally mean “no scurvy”, a- (which means “no”) and scorbutus (which means “scurvy”).

Ascorbate iron is an antioxidant with mild reducing tendencies. It oxidizes with the loss of a single electron and forms a dehydroascorbic acid with the loss of two electrons. It is able to react with reactive oxygen species oxidants, which are damaging to animals and plants (at the molecular level). It has the molecular capabilities to terminate chain radical reactions from these reactive oxygen species through electron transfer thus reducing the frequency of harmful free radical reactions through the human body.

A range of essential metabolic reactions within the human body require ascorbate to function. Since humans are incapable of synthesizing Ascorbic acid, it must be consumed through dietary or supplementary intake, in the form of vitamin C.

The body uses both active transport and simple diffusion to absorb ascorbic acid. Consuming ascorbic acid (or vitamin C) on a regular basis means that your absorption rate should lie somewhere between 70 and 95%. These percentages are variant based on an individual's personal ability to absorb this nutrient. As ascorbic acid is responsible for performing numerous physiological functions within the human body including the synthesis of collagen, carnitine, tyrosine and neurotransmitters as well as the metabolism of microsome, knowing and understanding absorption rates is vital.

Health Benefits of Ingredient

The health benefits of Vitamin C (or ascorbic acid) are numerous. They include both physiological and psychological improvements and enhancements that range from the synthesis of neurotransmitters to the metabolism of proteins.

Vitamin C is involved in protein metabolism that enables your body to build, restore and grow muscle tissue. Without this vital nutrient your muscles would be at risk of deteriorating and your body could develop scurvy over time.

At any given time, on any given day, your body is under attack from harmful free radicals. The antioxidant properties present in vitamin C work to help fight back against those harmful free radicals and keep your body healthy.

Your immune system is benefitted greatly by the presence of vitamin C in your body. It helps to improve the absorption of nonheme iron, which is found in plant-based foods, to boost your immune defense against bacteria and illnesses that you come in contact with. When taken on a regular basis at a rate of at least 200 mg per day, vitamin C can reduce the instance of developing the common cold amongst those who subject themselves to extreme physical exercise. It also helps to shorten the duration of the common cold and lessen symptoms in the general public.

Creatine Monohydrate

Creatine Monohydrate is an additive for athletic dietary supplements, which enhances high-intensity anaerobic athletic performances and workouts. It is naturally made within the human body, but additional supplements can be taken to increase its stored energy power. This stored energy is then used by the muscles of the body to increase workout times while decreasing the risk of muscle fatigue.

Molecular view of Creatine Monohydrate

Breakdown Of Creatine Monohydrate

Creatine is an essential amino acid that is found in all animals. It does not contain or resemble protein, nor is it related to protein, which makes it a fairly unique type of amino acid. It is synthesized within the kidney, liver and pancreas and transported to the skeletal muscle, heart, brain and other tissues for use. Most of the creatine synthesized within the body is metabolized into phosphocreatine, which is a form of energy storage.

Creatine can be used in the conversion of ADP to ATP during muscle contraction in the form of a phosphate donor. This is due to the fact that it is an endogenous amino acid that occurs primarily in the muscle cells as stored energy. Since it is primarily found in muscle cells it may also have cardioprotective and neuroprotective actions over the heart and brain.

When creatine enters the body it is absorbed from the small intestine and enters blood circulation as it is transported to the liver. There both the creatine made by the body (liver) and ingested (supplement) are transported together into systemic circulation where it is released into different tissues throughout the body. During this process the transported creatine makes its way to the muscles and nerves by crossing cell membranes through specific creatine-transported systems through a 200 to 1 gradient.

Creatine, creatine kinase and phosphocreatine work together to create an intricate cellular energy buffering and transport system which connects the mitochondrial sites of energy production to the sites of energy consumption. It is a vital enzyme involved in cellular energy homeostasis.

Health Benefits of Creatine Monohydrate

The health benefits of creatine lie primarily on the physiological side of the health spectrum, in that it aids in muscle building through increased energy production through the muscles themselves. By creating a higher energy reserve from which to pull, creatine allows muscles within the body to work for longer periods of time without being overcome by the feelings of fatigue.

Use in Training and Athletics

When used in an athletic dietary supplement, creatine monohydrate is capable of increasing the amount of power and performance that a person can expect to harness. This is especially true during periods of high-intensity anaerobic repetitive work. Since most of the health benefits come from performing anaerobic exercises, this supplement addition is suggested for those performing multiple sets of strength training workouts, rather than single effort work. It is during these workouts that the user will begin to see the greatest amount of progress and muscular enhancement.