Alpha GPC, or L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine, can be found in the brain as a natural choline compound which delivers choline directly to the brain through the blood-brain barrier. It enhances psychological health and cognitive abilities like mental energy and focus. Through the psychological benefits it also indirectly serves physiological benefits such as increased muscle mass and a more defined body.
Alpha GPC at the Molecular Level
Alpha GPC also known as L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine is a natural choline compound that can be found in the brain. Alpha GPC delivers choline to the brain quickly across the blood-brain barrier. It is a biosynthetic precursor of acetylcholine which significantly increases cognitive functioning across the board.
The Alpha GPC that is found in supplements (and other industrialized products) is produced by the enzymatic or chemical deacylation of soya phospholipids that have been enriched by phosphatidylcholine, followed by a chromatographic purification. It may also be derived in smaller amounts from soy lecithin that has been highly purified.
a GPC is hygroscopic which means that it pulls moisture from the surrounding air into itself creating a gel like substance from the original powder when it is not sealed and stored properly. When alpha GPC is combined with other ingredients in an athletic dietary supplement this process occurs at a much slower rate, than when it is stored on its own.
Health Benefits of Alpha GPC
The health benefits of Alpha GPC are almost exclusively psychological, with very few direct physiological benefits. The psychological benefits you experience while regularly taking supplements containing Alpha GPC do have an effect on your physiological health though, so indirectly there are physical benefits you can achieve.
The psychological benefits that are associated with regular doses of Alpha GPC range from increasing memory capacity and learning abilities to enhancing focus and attention span. It can also enhance moods and increase mental energy during periods of high stress and mental engagement.
Athletic dietary supplements which include Alpha GPC do so to increase cognitive functioning, which in turn elevates physiological ability. The greater power the mind has over the body the more sets and reps an individual will be able to get into each workout session. These set improvements will in turn create greater muscle mass and an overall more defined physical body. The psychological benefits would thus be indirectly affecting the physiological benefits.
Huperzine A is a naturally occurring component of the firmoss Huperzia serrate that is used in dietary supplements as a way to enhance cognitive functioning as well as physical health. On the cognitive side, this compound has been shown to improve memory and mental focus, whereas on the physical side it has been shown to aid in muscle relaxation and improved blood circulation.
Huperzine A at the Molecular Level
Huperzine A is found in the firmoss Huperzia serrate as a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alkaloid compound. It is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and NMDA receptor antagonist. As an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Huperzine A stops enzymes from breaking down acetylcholine, which results in increases in acetylcholine.
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter focused on the brain's functioning during the learning process. It also happens to be involved in muscle contractions which means that it is regularly used by both weight lifters and academics within dietary supplements.
Huperzine A as a compound is used in dietary supplement to enhance both physiological and psychological performances. Since it is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, the effects of this compound are quickly and efficiently controlled and manipulated throughout the body.
Health Benefits of Huperzine A
The health benefits associated with Huperzine A include both physical enhancement as well as improved cognitive functioning. Physiologically it has been used to benefit health when it comes to reducing symptoms and length of the common cold as well as a relaxant for muscles and tendons. It has also been shown to improve blood circulation.
Improves Cognitive Thinking
As far as cognitive functioning is concerned, Huperzine A has been shown to improve both mental focus as well as memory. These cognitive benefits are present during menial tasks but enhanced when performing difficult tasks and during multitasking. It has been found that Huperzine A may improve cognitive functioning to such a degree that it could improve the clinical status and enhance the daily activities of individuals that may be living with Alzheimer’s disease.
N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine is an amino acid that has been acetylated to facilitate quicker and more effective absorption and usage within the body. Its benefits are primarily psychological, although it does offer some physiological benefits as well. With the regular use of a supplement including N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine you should experience both cognitive and physical enhancements.
Breakdown Of N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine
L-Tyrosine is a non-essential hydrophobic amino acid that cells within the body use to synthesize proteins. The main function of this amino acid is to receive phosphate groups that are transferred by way of protein kinases. It then changed the activity of the target protein.
Effect on Psychology
L-Tyrosine is a necessary precursor to neurotransmitters as it increases plasma neurotransmitter levels such as dopamine and norepinephrine. These increased levels of dopamine are then converted into norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline) and epinephrine (also known as adrenaline). These catecholamines are then used to keep your body moving through particularly difficult workouts.
N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine is an amino acid that has been acetylated. That means that it exhibits an increased ability to cross the selective permeable blood-brain barrier so that the L-Tyrosine can reach the brain more quickly, making its effects more intense and effective than non acetylated L-Tyrosine.
Health Benefits of Ingredient
The health benefits of N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine are both physiological and psychological in nature. Stress hormone levels are reduced through the regular use of L-Tyrosine, which means that you may notice improvements in both physical and cognitive functioning over time.
Despite the effects that N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine has on the neurotransmitters dopamine and norephedrine, it does not provide a significant effect on mood variation. Mood boosting qualities are noticeable however when the subject is exposed to stressful conditions. This benefit can therefore be experienced during periods of intense and stress inducing workouts.
You may notice a significant difference in your cognitive functioning during high stress activities such as athletic events or high-intensity workouts, as well as higher levels of concentration and memory recall during periods of multitasking.
L-Norvaline is used as an additive for athletic dietary supplements with the goal of aiding in the growth of muscle mass through healthy channels. Its health benefits include improved circulation and nutrient transport which results in the increase of muscle mass throughout the body. Supplements containing L-Norvaline should be taken by anyone looking to add more strength and power to their workouts.
Breakdown Of Compound
L-Norvaline is an amino acid that is constructed of an unbranched chain. It is also an isomer of the more common amino acid, valine. The prefix “nor” describes the chemical makeup of Norvaline as being one hydrocarbon group longer than the amino acid valine. Norvaline does not resemble or contain protein, nor is it related to protein in any sense, which makes it a rather unique amino acid.
How it Works
Norvaline effects both circulation and nitric oxide production in a positive manner. When nitric oxide is produced naturally in your body it sends signals to create enzymes whose only job is to inhibit and thus restrict that production. Taking norvaline as a supplement creates a chemical imbalance within your body that overrides this natural functioning. Norvaline has been shown to increase nitric oxide production by 55%. The result of this increase is heightened nutrient transportation to your muscles both during and after exercise. This increase of nutrients is often followed by an increase of activity during tissue regeneration and eventual enhanced muscle growth.
Health Benefits of Norvaline
The health benefits of L-Norvaline are purely physiological. It does not produce any noticeable psychological benefits or drawbacks. The main physiological benefit you can expect to achieve through the regular intake of supplements which contain L-Norvaline is an increase in muscle mass.
When used in an athletic dietary supplement, L-Norvaline works to improve blood circulation so that your muscles can work harder, for longer periods of time. Enhanced blood circulation means that nearly every system within your body will work better together from your cardiovascular system to your digestive system and everything in between. Regulated circulation should also improve the rate at which your muscles are able to repair and rebuild themselves after a workout.
The pump in muscle mass that is created by norvaline is one of the most sought after effects in any athletic dietary supplement. Since this growth is performed through a natural increase of nutrients becoming available to your muscles both during and after your workouts, it is a healthier way to achieve and maintain bulk.
Agmatine Sulfate is a combination of agmatine and sulfate that is used in athletic dietary supplements. It has both psychological and physiological health benefits that range from increased mental acuity and pain relief to enhanced insulin response and improved body composition.
Breakdown Of Chemical Compound
Agmatine is an aminoguanidine and a chemical substance which is created naturally from arginine through the decarboxylation process. Agmatine which is taken orally, as with the use of dietary supplements, is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and quickly distributed throughout the body. Although it is transported quickly through the body it is also eliminated quickly through the kidneys, giving it about a 2 hour half-life within the blood.
The chemical substance, agmatine, is synthesised within the break and stored in synaptic vesicles. When it is released by membrane depolarization and inactivated by agmatinase it binds to an adrenergic receptor and an imidazoline receptor binding site and blocks NMDA receptors. Through these processes agmatine is able to facilitate the communication between nerve cells within the brain to enhance focus and concentration.
Health Benefits of Agmatine Sulfate
The health benefits of Agmatine Sulfate are both physiological and psychological. While there are more psychological health benefits that come from the regular use of agmatine sulfate the physiological benefits are certainly worth mentioning, as they can be of great use to athletes and other physically active individuals.
Agmatine Sulfate has been shown to provide a mental acuity and mood boosting quality that also fights symptoms of anxiety. In addition to increasing your mental facilities it also has the ability to act as an analgesic, which means that it is capable of relieving pain. This psychological benefit is one of the most important in the athletic world as it positively affects how hard you can physically push and challenge yourself without feeling pain.
Mental Wellness Benefits
The physiological health benefits include enhancing the body’s response to insulin so that it is able to better process sugars, and improve the digestive performance. For this reason it has become one of the most sought after ingredients in an athletic dietary supplement. It provides users with the capabilities to build a leaner and more muscularly toned body, than ever before.
Beet Root Powder
Beet root powder is a natural byproduct of beet roots, created by grinding the roots into a powder form. It carries the same nutritional value of its unaltered form unless it has been refined into a more concentrated form. It is used within the human body to aid in cardiovascular, circulatory and digestive health to increase endurance exercise performance.
Breakdown Of Chemical Compound
Beet root powder is the created by grinding the taproot of the beet plant into a smooth powder. Since it is not an amino acid or an organic or synthetic compound, but rather a processed form of a natural plant, the chemical compound is a bit different.
Botanically classified the beet root is known as an herbaceous biennial from the Chenopodiaceae family and has a multiple variations. The beet root is rich in active compounds such as carotenoids, glycine betaine, saponins, betacyanins, folates, betanin, polyphenols and flavonoids. They are known to be antimicrobial as well as antiviral and may inhibit proliferation of tumor cells.
The powder of the beet root contains the same nutrients as the plant in its unaltered form unless it has been refined. Refined beet root powder may be more concentrated and therefore lack some of the sugars, salts and proteins of the unaltered plant. The red colour compound of betanin, found in the beetroot, cannot be broken down by the body. The ingestion of high concentrations of beet root powder may lead to a brief red discoloration of urine and stool, but is completely harmless.
Health Benefits of Beet Root Powder
The health benefits of beet root powder are primarily centered around the cardiovascular system and circulatory system within the body. It has also been shown to have beneficial health properties within the digestive system.
Its Benefits on Low Blood Pressure
Taking dietary supplements with beet root powder can reduce high blood pressure in hypertensive individuals. It also enhances the basic mechanics surrounding the cardiovascular system, so that they work more efficiently and effectively together. A regulated blood pressure combined with a more effective cardiovascular system equates to greater aerobic and anaerobic achievement during your workouts. Supplements including beet root powder have shown to increase endurance exercise performance in both athletes and the average person.
A Digestive Faciliator
Mild digestion issues or complications can be eased with the regular intake of beet root powder. Some studies have shown it to improve digestion by allowing greater blood flow to the digestive system. As an added bonus beet root powder also happens to be a good source of folate and manganese, two necessary dietary nutrients.
Creatine Monohydrate is an additive for athletic dietary supplements, which enhances high-intensity anaerobic athletic performances and workouts. It is naturally made within the human body, but additional supplements can be taken to increase its stored energy power. This stored energy is then used by the muscles of the body to increase workout times while decreasing the risk of muscle fatigue.
Breakdown Of Creatine Monohydrate
Creatine is an essential amino acid that is found in all animals. It does not contain or resemble protein, nor is it related to protein, which makes it a fairly unique type of amino acid. It is synthesized within the kidney, liver and pancreas and transported to the skeletal muscle, heart, brain and other tissues for use. Most of the creatine synthesized within the body is metabolized into phosphocreatine, which is a form of energy storage.
Creatine can be used in the conversion of ADP to ATP during muscle contraction in the form of a phosphate donor. This is due to the fact that it is an endogenous amino acid that occurs primarily in the muscle cells as stored energy. Since it is primarily found in muscle cells it may also have cardioprotective and neuroprotective actions over the heart and brain.
When creatine enters the body it is absorbed from the small intestine and enters blood circulation as it is transported to the liver. There both the creatine made by the body (liver) and ingested (supplement) are transported together into systemic circulation where it is released into different tissues throughout the body. During this process the transported creatine makes its way to the muscles and nerves by crossing cell membranes through specific creatine-transported systems through a 200 to 1 gradient.
Creatine, creatine kinase and phosphocreatine work together to create an intricate cellular energy buffering and transport system which connects the mitochondrial sites of energy production to the sites of energy consumption. It is a vital enzyme involved in cellular energy homeostasis.
Health Benefits of Creatine Monohydrate
The health benefits of creatine lie primarily on the physiological side of the health spectrum, in that it aids in muscle building through increased energy production through the muscles themselves. By creating a higher energy reserve from which to pull, creatine allows muscles within the body to work for longer periods of time without being overcome by the feelings of fatigue.
Use in Training and Athletics
When used in an athletic dietary supplement, creatine monohydrate is capable of increasing the amount of power and performance that a person can expect to harness. This is especially true during periods of high-intensity anaerobic repetitive work. Since most of the health benefits come from performing anaerobic exercises, this supplement addition is suggested for those performing multiple sets of strength training workouts, rather than single effort work. It is during these workouts that the user will begin to see the greatest amount of progress and muscular enhancement.
L-Citrulline Malate is a performance enhancing dietary supplement created with athletes in mind. It is a specific form of the organic compound and amino acid citrulline. This is a non-essential amino acid that assists in the natural dilation of veins with the goal of regulating blood flow.
Citrulline can be made by the human body through various chemical reactions. Can be produced from arginine as a by-product of the reaction that is catalyzed by the NOS family, or by trichohyalin (an enzyme) found within the root of hair follicles. It is also made from ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate as a part of one of the central reactions that occurs during the urea cycle.
The term malate refers to the salts and esters of malic acid, another organic compound, which is made by all living organisms. It has a naturally distinguishable and pleasantly sour taste and is occasionally used as a food additive to enhance the flavor profile.
Health Benefits of Citrulline Malate
There are plenty of health benefits that L-Citrulline Malate offers when used in athletic dietary supplements. These benefits are both psychological and physiological in nature. Some of the most notable health benefits include vasodilation, increased energy levels and immune system stimulation.
L-Citrulline Malate is most notably known for it’s use as a vasodilator, which means that it works to dilate (or enlarge) the veins to allow for less restricted blood flow. This is an incredibly important function for any supplement containing any form of stimulant to contain, as many stimulants (caffeine included) actually suppress the veins and restrict blood flow. The less blood flow your body allows to reach the muscles, the less energy and power you’ll have behind each workout.
It has also been shown to produce the health benefits of increased energy and immune system stimulation. Through these processes your body is able to put in more effort while exercising, which in turn leads to greater gains in muscular strength, stability and mass. Your body is also able to fight off the threat of illnesses better when the immune system is functioning properly, which means that you’ll spend less time moping around sick and more time pumping iron in the gym.
Vitamin C is a necessary nutrient that is naturally found in a variety of foods. It can also be taken in its most natural form as a supplement to ensure adequate intake based on absorption rates. It is used within the human body as a cofactor in eight enzymatic reactions and contains both antioxidant and anti histamine properties.
Breakdown Of Vitamin C
IUPAC Name: (5 R)-[(1 S)-1,2-Dihydroxyethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy furan-2(5 H)-one
Vitamin C is otherwise known as L-ascorbic acid. The chemical breakdown of ascorbic acid is as follows.
Ascorbic acid is an organic compound that occurs in the natural world, which means it does not need to be made or formulated by man to exist. In its truest form it contains antioxidant properties which have significant health benefits. Ascorbic acid was given it’s name based on the scientific finding that a deficiency of this nutrient can lead to scurvy. The term ascorbic can be broken apart to literally mean “no scurvy”, a- (which means “no”) and scorbutus (which means “scurvy”).
Ascorbate iron is an antioxidant with mild reducing tendencies. It oxidizes with the loss of a single electron and forms a dehydroascorbic acid with the loss of two electrons. It is able to react with reactive oxygen species oxidants, which are damaging to animals and plants (at the molecular level). It has the molecular capabilities to terminate chain radical reactions from these reactive oxygen species through electron transfer thus reducing the frequency of harmful free radical reactions through the human body.
A range of essential metabolic reactions within the human body require ascorbate to function. Since humans are incapable of synthesizing Ascorbic acid, it must be consumed through dietary or supplementary intake, in the form of vitamin C.
The body uses both active transport and simple diffusion to absorb ascorbic acid. Consuming ascorbic acid (or vitamin C) on a regular basis means that your absorption rate should lie somewhere between 70 and 95%. These percentages are variant based on an individual's personal ability to absorb this nutrient. As ascorbic acid is responsible for performing numerous physiological functions within the human body including the synthesis of collagen, carnitine, tyrosine and neurotransmitters as well as the metabolism of microsome, knowing and understanding absorption rates is vital.
Health Benefits of Ingredient
The health benefits of Vitamin C (or ascorbic acid) are numerous. They include both physiological and psychological improvements and enhancements that range from the synthesis of neurotransmitters to the metabolism of proteins.
Vitamin C is involved in protein metabolism that enables your body to build, restore and grow muscle tissue. Without this vital nutrient your muscles would be at risk of deteriorating and your body could develop scurvy over time.
At any given time, on any given day, your body is under attack from harmful free radicals. The antioxidant properties present in vitamin C work to help fight back against those harmful free radicals and keep your body healthy.
Your immune system is benefitted greatly by the presence of vitamin C in your body. It helps to improve the absorption of nonheme iron, which is found in plant-based foods, to boost your immune defense against bacteria and illnesses that you come in contact with. When taken on a regular basis at a rate of at least 200 mg per day, vitamin C can reduce the instance of developing the common cold amongst those who subject themselves to extreme physical exercise. It also helps to shorten the duration of the common cold and lessen symptoms in the general public.